General welfare clause
Description: First clause of Article I, section 8, of the U.S. Constitution, authorizing Congress to collect taxes and spend money for the common defense and the general welfare.
Significance: After 1936, the Supreme Court sometimes used the general welfare clause to provide constitutional justification for expanding congressional powers.
There have been two major interpretations of the general welfare clause, which is also called the taxing and spending clause. James Madison made a narrow construction of the clause, so that it was a summary of congressional power to tax and spend money for those purposes specifically enumerated in section 8. In contrast, Alexander Hamilton and Justice Joseph Story argued that the clause was a separate grant of power, authorizing Congress to use broad discretion in taxing and spending for the general welfare. In United States v. Butler (1936), Justice Owen J. Roberts's majority opinion cautiously endorsed most of the Hamilton/Story position on the general welfare clause. The next year, in Steward Machine Co. v. Davis and Helvering v. Davis, the Supreme Court expanded on Butler in sustaining the constitutionality of the Social Security Act. Justice Benjamin N. Cardozo's two majority opinions emphasized the idea that Congress had broad authority to determine which policies promote the welfare of the nation. In South Dakota v. Dole (1987), the Court allowed Congress to withhold federal funds for the purpose of putting pressure on states to maintain a uniform drinking age, because the policy was “reasonably calculated to advance the general welfare.” The general welfare clause usually overlaps with the commerce clause. Given the Court's expansive definition of commerce, it is unlikely that the Court will ever overturn a federal statute as contrary to the general welfare clause.