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WORKING ON THESE TWO BOOKS!................ NOT NEARLY DONE!-------------------------------------------------

Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit
[[ ]]
Author Jeanette Winterson
Country Great Britain
Language English
Publisher Vintage 2001
Released 1985
Media Type Print (Paperback)
Pages 171
ISBN ISBN 0 09 993570

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Write the summary: Girl grows up religious with an overbearing mother. she figures out she's gay. people in her church do not accept her. there are a few fantasy tales interwoven in the book. and then it ends abruptly.

Criticism: the book as a whole was unenjoyable read. She shy's away from anything sexualized. She doesn't really present a strong bond between the lesbians. The lesbian "oh my god i'm gay" scenes are meant to be pivotal points for both characters...but they really just read like subtext. Personally i don't buy the bond between the lesbians characters. the only character that is well-developed, it seems, is the mother.

if you don't have a religious background, you're liable not to get all the jokes.  i smirked maybe 3 times in the book. and found only 4 insightful quotes.  the book is fluff....  You have to be in some kind of mood to get this book, and whatever that mood is, i've known it.


Chapter Summaries

Introduction

- Written in 1983-1984 when Winterson was 24. - brief bio of her stint in journalism, but found herself restless and unable routinize her work-life. - her book became popular through word of mouth- Written in 1983-1984 when Winterson was 24. - brief bio of her stint in journalism, but found herself restless and unable routinize her work-life. - her book became popular through word of mouth

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy: The last book of the law

Joshua

Judges

Ruth


Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit

by Jeanette Winterson


Paratext

Introduction:

- Written in 1983-1984 when Winterson was 24.

- brief bio of her stint in journalism, but found herself restless and unable routinize her work-life.

- her book became popular through word of mouth


Structure:

Given the book's theological subject matter, some of the subsection, or stories, are named after Gospels from Old Testament.



Genre:

1) Experimental - "Oranges is an experimental novel: its interests are anti-linear," since Winterson does not believe we think in "straight lines." Further likening our our mental processes allegorically to "a maze or motorway," whose turns yields other turns, none of which are symmetrical or obvious (xiii)...

2) Autobiographical - When asked, if her novel was autobiographical, she replied, "No not at all and yes of course." (xiv) Such a response, on its own, fittingly places the novel's in the metafictional genre, as metafiction, is neither entirely fictional nor entirely autobiographical, it is a syntheses of the two.

- It's popularity spawned an adapted BBC television spin-off series called Oranges.

- She exhorts her readers to question the delimiting safety of their "ready-made" world's by pushing forward, "often past the frontiers of common sense, into a personal place unknown and untried"(xiv).

- "once you can talk about what troubles you, you are some way towards handling it."


The themes:

1) The precarious state of the immutable family unity.

2) Religiosity as psychosis

3) Matriarchy: The economy the church and the domestic sphere as governed by women

3) Friendship

4) Love (is love a conscious undertaking to which we are impassive?) church love = psychosis homosexual love = perversity according to religious zealots

5) Religion as commerce -- materializing the immaterial

6) History as story-telling

7) The indeterminacy vs. determinacy --- gut or directive?



Literary Devices


1) Narration

a) free indirect style of heterodiegetic narration: paraboles


b) First-person homodiegetic narration: focalized through Jeanettes meta-fictional account of her past


2) Allusions and smilies most are religious


DRAMATIS PERSONAE

Jeanette

Mother

Father

Melissa

Elsie Noris = like numerology

Auntie May

Pastor Finch

Pastor Spratt

Miss Vole

Miss Sparrow

Miss Spencer

Next Door = Heathens

Auntie = married to Uncle Bill

Nelie = her husband is dead

Doreen = married to Frank has a daughter Jane

Ida = Forbidden Paper shop co-owner

Alice =



SUMMARY

Genesis


Exodus


Leviticus


Numbers


Deuteronomy: The last book of the law


Joshua


Judges


Ruth



Midnight's Children
[[ ]]
Author Salman Rushdie
Country Great Britain
Language English
Publisher Vintage Canada
Released 1981
Media Type Print (Paperback)
Pages 533
ISBN ISBN 978-0-676-97065-4

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Midnight’s Children (see 15 for ?)

“The Perforated Sheet”

-August 15, 1947 = Saleem Sinai, the narrator, is born at the exact moment of India’s independence which indissolubly “handcuffs”(3) him to a history, that is “at the best of times […] a dangerous sort of involvement.”(3) His Lamentations foreshadows India’s violent revolution into partitioned countries.

-self-reflexive narration.  aware of his mortality through his decrepitude, and fearful of otherwise incorporating two many convergent narratives incoherently, he expresses an earnest wish to write a novel with “meaning” (4).

-a “white bedsheet with a roughly circular hole” provides inspiration for the eponymous chapter.

-Quotation from the Quran (Muslim Religion)prefaces the interposed narrative of Adam Aziz the protagonist of the Perforated Sheet. -“One Kashmiri morning”(4)= ethnocentric themes.

The story of the “perforated sheet” begins in 1915 Kashmir. -Adam Aziz, a Kashmiri Muslim, has just returned home after 5 years in Germany studying at the University of Heidelberg(ostensibly exposing him to mounting antisemitic discourse prior to the WWII). His medical education abroad leads him to see through “traveled eyes” (5). Many in his hometown resents his western education. (5)

-Adam Aziz’s mind is commandeered by remembrances Heidelberg and his old university friends, which run counter to his authentic self as a Muslim Kashmiri. He resented their belief that he was somehow the invention of their ancestors. His feelings of ambivalence; feeling Muslim and practicing the faith but not entirely believing in its practices, leaves him with a hole in his heart. This hole in his heart manifest itself allegorically through when he hits his Nose on the prayer mat, and watch his blood transform into icy rubies. The symbolism compels him to re-evaluate his muslim spirituality(4) “his german eyes deprive him of the gift of seeing” (7)

Adam’s mother, Amma, who spent most of her life in [purdah], but she sold gemstones to put Adam through university, when her husband, who formally ran the business, suffered a stroke and became housebound.

We are introduced to Tai. Adaam Aziz was fond of him as a child. The newly returned Dr. Adam Aziz repeatedly asks Tai his Age, to which Tai evades answering by telling him primordial tales that attest to his agelessness: he knew where Christ was burried, and hung out with him. Tai refers to Jesus as (Isa which is Arabic for Jesus). He tells Adaam he is the keeper of his Adaam’s history. (11) However, he does treat the Adaam contemptuous, resenting his Western education. He praises Adaam’s nose and offers a theory of its valor.(13) He tells him that Feringhee women com to his lake to drown themselves. (12) Tells him Iskandar the Great (Arabic for Alexander the great) also had a prominent nose that itches when he feel for a floozy in Gandhara, and led a life of unimportance with a perpetually itching nose and dug his sworn into himself.

Tai shouts across the water that, Ghani's daughter is sick. Ghani is a blind landowner, who loves culture and buying European art (14).

Adaam's room is littered with echos of a “half-faded German life” ( i.e., orwarts and Lenin’s What Is To Be Done?). His medical bag even has the word HEIDELBERG visibly burnt into the leather on the bottom of his bag(14).Dr. Aziz’s mom is sick and has many rashes, but he rushes out to go see Ghani’s daughter, Naseem.

Aziz’s mother has boils, which worries him. He lets it slip that she should have been wearing her purdah, to avoid the scornful eyes of others presumably since they may recoil in disgust at her boils, but in Adaam's tacit monologue, we learn that no one would likely want to buy gems from a woman entirely covered, as is the purdah custom.(15)

Tai calls him “fine business man” and a “big shot” and unleashes a full stream of invectives induced by his bag’s emblem, adding, “that bag should fry in Hell with the testicles of the ungodly.”(16) The bag represents both Nazism and the encroachment of the Western way of life into India, replacing traditional holistic healing with commercial healing (Adaam inner concession: A landowner’s daughter is good news indeed to a doctor with a career to make, even if she is ill. No: because she is ill. (14)). (15) Angry, Tai believes he should use his nose instead of the medical equipment.

Ghani’s house in poor condition, as the servants have taken advantageous of his blindness. It distresses Adaam that Ghani is a blind and loves European art.


DRAMATIS PERSONAE

1. Saleem Sinai = narrator and “author of the novel” 2. Adam Aziz’s father = was a gemstone merchant(8), but now suffers from a stroke

3. Adam’s Azizi’s mother = Amma means mother in Malayalam,Tamil, Konkani, Telugu, Kannada, Sinhalese, Bengali, Korean, Basque and some Sino-Tibetan languages

4. Adam Aziz = Saleem Sinai’s Grandfather = Kashmiri. = Muslim He is a doctor. He has blue( common for Kashmiri men), red beard(“disrespectful” mother sees as disrespectful, as only Hajis have them, and since he’s not entirely devoute, his appearance is disrespectful), tall, which a very large nose, which his old friends teased him about, but that Saleem is grateful for having inherited it. He compares Adam’s nose to the size of [Ganesh]’s trunk, and further adds that it establishes patriarch. (8) Refered to as “Nakkoo” by Tai, which means, “the nosey one”(11)

5. Naseem: is always ill according to her father Ghani.

6. Ghani: the blind landowner (13) and widower. His house is opulent. When we first meet him he is standing beneath a painting of Diana the Huntress [(Cynthia to the Romans, hence Çintra) –> Cynthia was originally an epithet of the Greek goddess of the moon, Artemis, who was sometimes called "Cynthia" because, according to legend, the goddess was born on Mount Cynthus.]. His daughter is Naseem. He appreciates European paintings.

7. Tai = a [shikara] boatdriver. “sets history in motion”(7) by informing him that. Has a primordial feel about him. “nobody had remembered when Tai had been young”(9). Has only two gold teeth in his mouth. People perceive him as mad. Has a pretty wife and four sons and possibly other on the other lake side. As a child Adam Aziz loved him for his endless verbiage which led others to believe he was crack(9). He is the anti-thesis of his university friend’s beliefs in change. He is, rather, a “quirky familiar spirit of the valey”. A watery Caliban too fon of cheap Kashmiri Brandi. 8.


9. Emerald = Saleem’s aunt has the nose (snobbish nose)(8)

10. Alia = Saleem’s aunt has the nose (intellectual nose)(8)


11. Hanif = Uncle (genius nose)(9)

12. Mustapha Uncle (second rater sniffer nose) (9)


Tai’s theory about the nose: “it’s the place where the ouside world meets the world inside you. If they don’t get on, you feel it here. Then you rub your nose with embarrassment to make the itch go away.. A nose like that, little idiot , is a great gift. I say: trust it.” (13)

13. Isa = Jesus in Arabic. Known through Tai’s narrative he is bald and gluttinous. (11)


14. Ingrid: old university girlfriend of Adam Aziz’s who scorned Muslim ways(6)

15. Ilse Lubin = old university guy friend of Adam Aziz’s who was an anarchist(6)


Lenin: brief bio from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenin Lenin, was a Russian revolutionary, Bolshevik leader, communist politician, principal leader of the October Revolution and the first head of the Soviet Union. Return to Russia


Locomotive of Lenin’s train, on which he arrived at Finland Station, Petrograd in April, 1917. After the 1917 February Revolution in Russia and the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, Lenin realized that he must return to Russia as soon as possible, but this was problematic because he was isolated in neutral Switzerland as the First World War raged throughout neighboring states. The Swiss communist Fritz Platten nonetheless managed to negotiate with the German government for Lenin and his company to travel through Germany by rail, on the so-called “sealed train”. The German government clearly hoped Lenin’s return would create political unrest in Russia, which would help to end the war on the Eastern front, allowing Germany to concentrate on defeating the Western allies. Once through Germany, Lenin continued by ferry to Sweden; the remainder of the journey through Scandinavia was subsequently arranged by Swedish communists Otto Grimlund and Ture Nerman. On 16 April 1917, Lenin arrived by train to a tumultuous reception at Finland Station, in Petrograd.[20] He immediately took a leading role within the Bolshevik movement, publishing the April Theses,[21] which called for an uncompromising opposition to the Provisional Government. Initially, Lenin isolated his party through this lurch to the left. However, this uncompromising stand meant that the Bolsheviks were to become the obvious home for all those who became disillusioned with the provisional government, and with the “luxury of opposition” the Bolsheviks did not have to assume responsibility for any policies implemented by the government.[22]


Lenin disguised as “Vilén”, wearing a wig and his goatee shaved off. Finland, 11 August 1917. Meanwhile, Aleksandr Kerensky, Grigory Aleksinsky and other opponents of the Bolsheviks accused them and Lenin in particular of being paid German agents.[23] In response Leon Trotsky, a prominent new Bolshevik leader, made a defensive speech on 17 July, saying: An intolerable atmosphere has been created, in which you as well as we are choking. They are throwing dirty accusations at Lenin and Zinoviev. Lenin has fought thirty years for the revolution. I have fought twenty years against the oppression of the people. And we cannot but cherish a hatred for German militarism. … I have been sentenced by a German court to eight months’ imprisonment for my struggle against German militarism. This everybody knows. Let nobody in this hall say that we are hirelings of Germany.[24] After the turmoil of the July Days, when workers and soldiers in the capital clashed with government troops, Lenin had to flee to Finland for safety, to avoid arrest by Kerensky. The Bolsheviks had not arranged the July Uprising. The time was still not ripe for revolution, claimed Lenin: the workers in the city were willing, but the Bolsheviks still needed to wait for the support of the peasants. During his short time in Finland, Lenin finished his book State and Revolution,[25] which called for a new form of government based on workers’ councils, or soviets, elected and revocable at all moments by the workers. After an abortive coup attempt by General Kornilov in late August, the masses rallied to the Bolsheviks and their programme of 'peace, land, bread'.[26] Imprisoned Bolshevik leaders were released and Lenin returned to Petrograd in October, inspiring the October Revolution with the slogan “All Power to the Soviets!”. Lenin directed the overthrow of the Provisional Government from the Smolny Institute between 6 and 8 November 1917. The storming and capitulation of the Winter Palace on the night of the 7th to 8th of November marked the beginning of Soviet rule.