Difference between pages "To Kill a Mockingbird" and "Macbeth Test"

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[http://www.enotes.com/mockingbird/ ''' ''To Kill a Mockinbird'' summary at eNotes.com''']
 
  
{{infobox Book | <!-- See Wikipedia:WikiProject_Novels or Wikipedia:WikiProject_Books -->
 
| name          = To Kill A Mockingbird
 
| image        = [[Image:Mockingbirdfirst.JPG|190px]]<!--prefer first edition-->
 
| image_caption =
 
| author        = Harper Lee
 
| country      = United States
 
| language      = English language|English
 
| genre        = Historical novel, Social Issues
 
| publisher    = HarperCollins
 
| release_date  = 1960
 
| media_type    = Print (Hardcover|Hardback & Paperback)
 
| pages        = 336 (Hardcover 40th Anniversary edition)
 
| isbn          = 0060194995 (Hardcover 40th Anniversary edition)
 
}}
 
  
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The play opens with Macbeth and Banquo, two of the Scottish King Duncan’s generals returning from battle when they encounter three witches in the woods. The witches tell Macbeth of how he will become the Thane of Cawdor and then the King of Scotland. For Banquo, they prophesize that he will beget the line of Scottish Kings, though he will never become king himself. The two are sufficiently skeptical and continue their journey home.
  
Scout and Jem Finch are growing up in the tired old Alabama town of Maycomb.  Their father, Atticus, is the local lawyer and as a single parent tries to raise his children with honor and respect to their individualism.  With the Depression on times are hard, and there is no money to be found anywhere in town.
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However, when the two come closer to the encampment, they are presented with a messenger from King Duncan who announces that Macbeth has been made the Thane of Cawdor, immediately putting the prophecy into perspective, making Macbeth wonder how he might become king. He invites Duncan to dine at his castle that evening and goes ahead to tell his wife of the day’s events.  
  
To amuse themselves Scout, Jem, and their best friend Dill begin a relentless campaign during their summertimes to get Boo Radley, their reclusive, legendary neighbor, to come out of his house. They concoct endless schemes and even go so far as to create a play that details Boo’s life.  Atticus forbids them to have anything to do with Mr. Radley, urging them to let the poor man be.  
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Unlike Macbeth, Lady Macbeth is very sure of her husband’s future, desiring the throne and telling him that they must murder Duncan to ensure his ascension. Immediately upon returning to his castle, Lady Macbeth is able to convince her husband to take initiative and murder Duncan that very night.
  
Atticus is a good man, and one day takes on a case that affects him personally.  A black man, Tom Robinson, is accused of beating and raping a white woman, Mayella Ewell. Most of the county is convinced immediately that Tom is guilty of the crime, and begin to look at Atticus in a very negative way for actually defending him and trying to do right by him. Scout and Jem begin to get tormented over their father at school, and Atticus begs them not to get riled up over the town’s prejudice.
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The two plan to get Duncan’s chamberlains drunk enough that they will not remember the evening and blame them for the murder. When the body of Duncan is discovered in the morning, Macbeth quickly kills the “culprits” and assumes the kingship. All the while, Duncan’s sons flee the country, afraid for their own lives.
  
As the trial begins it becomes apparent to Scout and Jem that there is no way that Tom Robinson could have beaten and raped Mayelle Ewell, as he’s a cripple.  Atticus proves that to the jury, and Scout and Jem are astonished when Tom is slapped with a guilty verdict anyway. They begin to realize that many people in town are very prejudiced against blacks, and their hearts are saddened by it.  It’s hard for them to understand how people can be so mean to each other, and they both begin to see that, even in court where things are supposed to be unbiased, men’s hearts bring in their own hatreds.
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Immediately, Macbeth’s misgivings and trust in the prophecies force his hand in the murder of Banquo and his son Fleance as well, afraid that his heirs will seize the throne. Successfully killing Banquo, the murderers fail to kill Fleance.
  
It isn’t much longer that Tom is shot and killed for trying to escape while in prison. Jem especially takes the whole affair hard, and it takes him a long time to come to grips with the jury’s decision, and Tom’s death.
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The night of his murder, Banquo’s ghost appears to Macbeth and sends him into hysteria, scaring his guests and angering his wife. His very presence as the king of Scotland has angered the other nobles and further incites Macbeth’s misgivings and paranoia.  
  
After the trial has died down Bob Ewell, Mayelle’s father, begins threatening Atticus for embarrassing him in court, and resolves that he’ll get him back one way or another. Atticus is convinced that he’s all talk, and passes it off as such.
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To ease his fears, he visits the witches again and they offer to him more prophecies. He must beware of Macduff, a chief opponent to Macbeth taking the throne. He cannot be harmed by any man born of woman and he is safe until Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane Castle. He returns home and finds that Macduff has fled to England to join Malcom. In fear, Macbeth seizes Macduff’s castle and orders the murder of his wife and children, inciting Macduff to further rage. With Malcom, the two raise an army and ride to Scotland to take on Macbeth with the support of the Scottish nobles who fear Macbeth’s tyranny and murderous ways.  
  
Time crawls past, and finally Bob Ewell is good to his word and attacks the children Halloween night with a knife.  He breaks Jem’s arm and almost kills Scout, but Boo Radley, of all people, comes to their rescue and saves them. The sheriff, Heck Tate, hushes the whole thing over so Boo Radley will not be dragged into the spotlight, and Scout is thrilled to finally get to meet the man they for so long fantasized about.  As she walks him back home, she realizes that all this time he was watching them from his front porch windows, and just for a little while she is able to stand in his shoes.
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While Macbeth awaits his opponents, Lady Macbeth is in the process of going mad, unable to wash the blood from her hands. The news of her suicide reaches Macbeth directly before the arrival of the English forces and sends him into an even deeper despair. He awaits confidently as the prophecy foretold his invulnerability. However, Macduff’s forces arrive under the cover of boughs cut from Birnam wood. When Macbeth is finally confronted by Macduff after his forces have been overwhelmed, Macduff announces that he was “ripped from his mother’s womb” not born and ultimately defeats and beheads Macbeth, handing the crown back to Malcolm, the rightful heir.
  
  
==Character List ==
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==Character Summaries==
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===Macbeth===
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As one of King Duncan’s chief generals and closest military advisers, Macbeth is led to perform wicked deeds by the prophecies of three witches and the machinations of his wife. When he is pronounced Thane of Cawdor for his military victories – a prophecy come true before his ascension to the kingship – he is tempted into murder to fulfill the second prophecy. One he is crowned king, his brutal plans are made all the easier as he begins killing indiscriminately to ensure his throne. He is not subtle, nor effective as he riles the entire Scottish nobility against his tyrannous ways and ultimately falls before the might of his own psychological pressure and the might of his opposition.
  
'''Atticus Finch'''- Atticus is Scout and Jem’s father.  He is the local lawyer in town, and tries hard to raise his children so they have integrity and the ability to come to their own conclusions about things.  He does this by living his own life to his high standards, and this is in part why he feels compelled to take on Tom Robinson’s case.  He knows that he will lose, but he has to try anyway.
 
  
'''Scout Finch'''- Scout is the main character, and the narrator.  As she grows up in Maycomb she begins to understand why her father tries so hard to do the right thing.  She is precocious, very much a tomboy, and for a time is obsessed with her neighbor, Boo Radley.  
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===Lady Macbeth===
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As Macbeth’s wife, Lady Macbeth is the early instigator of the atrocious plans that lead to Macbeth’s Kingship. She is ambitious and power hungry and her machinations are as cold and vicious as her husband’s actions. However, after the bloodshed begins she is incapable of bearing the weight of what she has done and soon falls victim to the weight of her guilt, eventually going mad and committing suicide. Despite the horrible nature of her and her husband’s crimes, the two are a very close couple very much so in love.
  
'''Jem Finch'''- Jem is Scout’s older brother. He especially finds it hard to grapple with the town’s prejudice in light of the fact that Tom Robinson is most certainly innocent. As he gets older, he finds his own way to come to terms with the town he lives in, and the people around him.  He always looks out for Scout, and saves her life the night they are attacked.  
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===The Witches===
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There are three witches, plotting mischief against Macbeth through their prophecy and spells. Their predictions are responsible for prompting him to murder Duncan and Banquo, and give him cause to believe his is invincible later on. There are no details as to the origin or nature of the witches, other than that they serve Hecate. Numerous similarities between them and mythological beings have been drawn, but none are of clear relation.  
  
'''Calpurnia'''- Cal is the Finch’s cook, and is a mother-figure to Scout and Jem. She is stern but loving underneath, and tries hard to keep Scout on the straight and narrow.  
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===Banquo===
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A second of Duncan’s generals, he is with Macbeth when the witches tell their first prophecy, foretelling his children to inherit the throne. He is equally ambitious, but does not take the action that Macbeth does in securing his ambitions. Rather, he is the path not chosen, that of inaction and decency. His ghost later haunts Macbeth accordingly for his murder, reminding Macbeth of the choices he made.
  
'''Aunt Alexandra'''- Aunt Alexandra is Atticus’s sister who comes to live with them when the trial starts. She is obsessed with the background of the Finch’s, and tries hard to impress upon Jem and Scout that they are a "Fine Family", and that the children should act as such.  Scout and Jem, who love wearing overalls and playing outside, let her scolding go in one ear and out the other.  
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===Duncan===
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Duncan is presented as the antithesis to Macbeth in terms of rulers. He is kind, virtuous, and a brilliant leader. His death at Macbeth’s hands throws the nation into disarray until the throne can be rightfully returned to his family.
  
'''Dill Harris'''- Dill is Scout and Jem’s best friend. He lives in Meridian and only comes to Maycomb during the summertime.  He is a scrawny boy who is very much a dreamer, and becomes just as obsessed with making Boo Radley come out.  
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===Macduff===
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A nobleman who right away opposes Macbeth’s ascension to the throne. After fleeing Scotland to find Malcolm, Macbeth murders his wife and son, creating a personal reason for revenge. He is a principle figure in removing Macbeth from the throne and giving it back to Malcolm and is the only man who can kill Macbeth.
  
'''Maudie Atkinson'''- Miss Maudie is Scout’s next door neighbor.  She loves being outdoors and is one of the few people in town who feels that Tom Robinson deserves a fair trial and that he most likely did not do what Mayelle Ewell is accusing him of. She offers Jem and Scout many insights into their father’s character, and help them understand why he does what he does.  
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===Malcolm===
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The eldest of Duncan’s two sons, Malcolm immediately flees Scotland after the murder of his father. With Macduff’s help however, he is able to muster the forces he needs to take on Macbeth and regain the throne, thus restoring the order to Scotland that was lost when Duncan was murdered.
  
'''Tom Robinson'''- Tom is the black man accused of beating and raping Mayelle Ewell.  His right arm is crippled from a farm accident that happened when he was a child, making it a physical impossibility that he beat the young woman.  He is married with children, and is very nice and soft-spoken.  
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===Fleance===
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Important because of his role in the prophecy of the three witches, Fleance survives the murder of his father and attempted murder of himself by Macbeth and goes on to disappear through the play’s ending.  
  
'''Mayelle Ewell'''- Mayelle comes from a very poor family and lives by the town dump.  She is the one accusing Tom Robinson of raping her, but it’s obvious that she made advances toward Robinson and that when her father found out, he beat her.  She lives a very sad life.  
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===Lennox===
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A Scottish nobleman.
  
'''Bob Ewell'''- Bob is Mayelle’s father, and is a drunk, mean-spirited man who is very prejudiced. Atticus embarrasses him in court, and he resolves to pay him back somehow, which he does when he tries to kill Jem and Scout. 
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===Ross===
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A Scottish nobleman.
  
'''Heck Tate'''- Heck Tate is the local sheriff, and is a good man like Atticus. He, too, tries to help Tom Robinson out in his own way.  He and Atticus are good friends.  
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===The Murderers===
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The men hired by Macbeth to murder both Banquo and his son and Macduff’s family. They fail to kill Fleance.
  
'''Arthur "Boo" Radley'''- Boo Radley lives on the same street as Jem and Scout, but he never comes out of his house.  This, of course, endlessly fascinates the kids.  They try for many years to get him to come out, and all their schemes never work.  The only time they ever see him is the night he saves their lives from Bob Ewell.
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===Porter===
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The drunken doorman of Macbeth’s castle.
  
'''Mrs. Dubose'''- Mrs. Dubose is a cantankerous, bitter old woman who lives at the end of the street. She never has anything good to say to anyone, but Atticus constantly tells the two of them to ignore her foul words and treat her with courtesy and respect.
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===Lady Macduff===
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Macduff’s wife and victim of yet another of Macbeth’s atrocities. Her household is shown in sharp contrast to that of Lady Macbeth’s, much more tranquil and less violent.
  
==Chapter Summaries ==
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===Donalbain===
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Duncan’s son and Malcolm’s younger brother.
  
===Chapter 1===
 
 
Scout Finch is growing up in a hot, tired Alabama town, where there is nothing to buy and nothing to buy it with.  She and her older brother, Jem, live with their father, Atticus, the local lawyer, and their cook, Calpurnia, close to downtown Maycomb.  They’re all related by blood or marriage to everyone in town, so it’s a close-knit group to say the least. 
 
 
As our story begins, summer has just started.  Scout is six, and Jem is ten, and they have just discovered a boy hiding in their next door neighbors turnip greens.  He’s a scrawny kid who’s name is Dill, and the three become instant friends as soon as it’s revealed that Dill has already seen "Dracula", which gives him instant credibility. 
 
 
As summer progresses and favorite games become old hat, Scout, Jem, and Dill become obsessed with making Boo Radley come out.  Boo Radley lives up the street from Scout and Jem, and legend has it that he never comes out of his house.  Any small crimes or mysterious happenings in town are said to be his work, and rarely will anyone pass the house alone at night.  Their first raid consists of a dare between Dill and Jem.  He must run to the Radley house, touch it, and run back.  He finally does it, but only after 3 days careful thought and much ribbing from Dill.
 
 
===Chapter 2 ===
 
 
When September rolls around and Dill leaves to go back home to Meridian, Scout realizes that she’s starting her first year of school.  After her first day, however, she’s determined not to go back.  After trying to explain the complicated backgrounds of some of the county folks to the new teacher, Scout lands herself into trouble again and again, and is not quite sure how.  It should be obvious, she thinks, that offering Walter Cunningham a quarter for lunch is simply not done.  They don’t take help from anyone, and the reason why he doesn’t have a lunch is because he can’t afford one.  When she tries to explain this to the new teacher, however, she gets her hands slapped by a ruler.
 
 
When lunchtime finally rolls around, she’s grateful to get out of class and go home.
 
 
===Chapter 3 ===
 
 
Scout wastes no time paying back Walter Cunningham for getting her started on the wrong foot with the new teacher.  It isn’t until Jem comes and stops her that she quits tormenting him in the playground, and she nearly falls over when Jem invites the poor boy to lunch at their house.
 
 
The day doesn’t improve when she embarrasses Walter at the table and is forced to eat in the kitchen by Calpurnia.
 
 
When she returns to school the day’s drama isn’t over.  Miss Caroline, the teacher, is horrified to discover a cootie in the hair of Burris Ewell, a hulking, angry boy who quickly reduces Miss Caroline to tears as he slouches out of the room, his first and only day of school over.
 
 
That evening Scout is weary from the day’s crimes and begs Atticus not to send her back to school anymore.  The fact that Miss Caroline forbade her to read and write anymore is really what’s distressing her, and when Atticus strikes a deal with her that if she will concede to go back to school they’ll continue reading together like always, she happily accepts.
 
 
===Chapter 4 ===
 
 
As the schoolyear inches along, Scout begins to realize that she’s far more educated than her peers, and even more so, perhaps, than her teacher.  As construction paper and crayon Projects evolve day after day, she realizes she is just plain bored. 
 
 
As she walks home from school there is a huge oak tree that sits on the corner of the Radley lot.  She passes it every day without incident, only one day she spots two pieces of chewing gum in a knot in the tree.  After making sure it won’t kill her she hastily crams it into her mouth, and Jem is furious with her when he finds out, convinced that it’s poisoned by Boo Radley.
 
 
During their walk home on the last day of school Scout and Jem find another treasure in the tree, this time two old, shined up pennies.
 
 
When Dill arrives for the summer two days later the group resumes their obsession with Boo Radley.  They create a play that reenacts Boo’s life, and continue with it all summer long until they are very nearly caught by Atticus.
 
 
===Chapter 5 ===
 
 
When Dill and Jem start excluding Scout from their plots she begins to spend more time with her next door neighbor, Miss Maudie Atkinson.  Miss Maudie is garden obsessed, and spends her evenings reining over her front porch in the twilight.  Scout gets a lot of valuable information from her about Boo Radley’s past, and the reason, perhaps, why he never comes out.
 
 
The next day she uncovers a major plot by Dill and Jem to pass a note to Boo Radley.  Scout protests but they threaten her and before she knows it she’s part of the scheme.  Things proceed fairly smoothly until they’re caught by Atticus, who forbids them to set one more foot on the Radley property and to leave Mr. Radley alone.
 
 
   
 
   
 
 
===Chapter 6 ===
 
 
The last night of the summer Jem and Dill hatch the biggest plot of them all (reasoning that, if they get killed, they’ll miss school instead of vacation).  They decide to try and peep into one of the windows at the Radley house.  When Scout (who until tonight knew nothing of the plan) starts to protest, they call her a girl and threaten to send her home.  With that, she joins them.
 
 
Things take a disastrous turn when Boo Radley’s older brother, Mr. Nathan Radley, hears them and, thinking they’re intruders, fires a shotgun.  They barely make it through the fence in time and high tail it back home so they’re not missed by the adults.  When they step into the gathering crowd to discuss the gunshot Scout is horrified to realize that Jem is missing his pants.  Dill hatches a good one and tells Atticus that he won them from Jem playing strip poker.  The adults seem satisfied with the lie, and don’t suspect them of causing the gunfire at the Radley place.
 
 
After they slink off, Scout discovers from Jem that he lost his pants as they were scurrying through the wire fence.  They got caught and he had to leave them behind or risk getting shot.  Late that night Jem decides to go after them rather than risk Mr. Nathan finding them the next morning and turning him in.  Scout pleads with him not to go, but he does it anyway.  When he gets back, he doesn’t say a word but lies in bed, trembling.
 
 
===Chapter 7 ===
 
 
Jem’s silence about that night lasts for a week.  They both start school again, and Scout discovers that the second grade is worse than the first, and the only consolation is that now she gets to stay as late as Jem and they can walk home together.
 
 
It’s during this walk home one afternoon that Jem finally opens up about his sojourn trip back to the Radley place to retrieve his pants.  He tells Scout that his pants were not tangled up the wire as he left them but were folded neatly on the fence post, as if someone was expecting him to come back and get them.
 
 
As they approach the oak tree with the knot hole they discover a ball of twine.  After waiting a few days to make sure that the knot hole is not some other child’s hiding place, they take ownership of everything they find in there from here on out.
 
 
The next treasure they discover in there is the figure of a boy and girl carved out of soap.  They’re carved to look like Scout and Jem.  The next prize is an old pocket watch that doesn’t run.  They decide to write a letter to whomever is leaving them things, but they’re shocked to discover the next day that the hole has been filled with cement.
 
 
When they question Mr. Nathan Radley (Boo’s brother who does leave the house) he tells them the tree was sick and he had to do it.  Upon questioning Atticus, however, he tells them that tree is perfectly healthy.
 
 
===Chapter 8 ===
 
 
That fall Maycomb endures the coldest snap since 1885, and Scout thinks the world is ending one morning when she wakes up and finds snow on the ground.  Although it’s only a dusting, Jem is determined to build his first snowman and sets out creatively making one out of dirt, and then using the precious white snow to cover it up.
 
 
That night the temperature drops even further and all the stoves in the house are lit for warmth.  Scout is awakened in the middle of the night by Atticus, who tells her Miss Maudie’s house next door is on fire and they have to get out.  They spend the night in front of the Radley driveway, watching the commotion.
 
 
The men of Maycomb help as much as they can getting furniture out of her house while there is still time, but eventually the whole thing is up in flames.  They don’t go back inside the house until morning, and Scout is horrified to discover she’s wrapped up in blanket and she has no idea where she got it.  She almost falls over when they deduce it was Boo Radley that brought the blanket out to her in the night, and she never even knew.
 
 
They’re heartened to discover the next day that Miss Maudie is not grieving for her lost house, saying she always wanted a smaller one anyway.
 
 
===Chapter 9 ===
 
 
As the school year progresses Scout begins to get teased at school over her father, and one night she asks Atticus why people are talking about him.  He tells her that’s he’s taken on a case that affects him personally and because he is defending this man, Tom Robinson, there is a big stink about it in town.  Atticus asks Scout that, no matter what she hears, she’s not to get into a fight with someone over this case.  True to her word, she doesn’t.  Until Christmas.
 
 
Their Uncle Jack Finch comes down from Boston, which is the good part of Christmas.  The bad part is that they all have to spend Christmas day at Aunt Alexandra’s house at Finch’s Landing.  Even worse, their cousin Francis is there, and Scout hates him.
 
 
Things so smoothly until after dinner when, alone in the backyard with Scout, Francis starts calling Atticus all sorts of terrible names because he’s defending a black man.  Scout sails in with her fists to defend him and gets caught by Uncle Jack.  She doesn’t have a moment to tell her side of the story, and moments later they’re on their way back home.  She’s finally able to tell her story to Uncle Jack later that night, and he apologizes for jumping all over her when he should’ve been punishing Francis.
 
 
===Chapter 10===
 
 
The neighborhood excitement starts up again in February when Tim Johnson, a mangy dog owned by a man on the other side of town, is discovered walking up the street with rabies.  The sheriff is called and he and Atticus drive up with a gun to shoot it.  Scout and Jem watch in amazement as their father, whom they’ve never seen hold a gun in his life, takes aim and shoots the dog square in the head from an amazing distance.  They’re further shocked to discover that he is the deadest shot in Maycomb county, an accomplishment he’s never bothered to mention to them since he doesn’t like guns.
 
 
===Chapter 11 ===
 
 
The day after Jem’s 12th birthday finds the two walking into town to spend his birthday money.  The downside to taking the route into town is that they have to walk past Mrs. Dubose’s house, a cantankerous, bitter old woman who lives at the end of the street.  She never has anything good to say to anyone, but Atticus constantly tells the two of them to ignore her foul words and treat her with courtesy and respect.
 
 
Normally they’re able to do this, but today their patience is pushed thin when she starts insulting Atticus’s decision to defend Tom Robinson.  They wait until they’re on their way back home from town and suddenly Jem starts destroying Mrs. Dubose’s flowers with Scout’s baton wand, chopping them viciously off the bush and scattering them across her yard.  When Atticus comes home later that evening, he knows he’s in for it worse than he’s ever been.
 
 
Atticus makes Jem go to her house and talk with her, and when Jem returns he says that she is making him read to her everyday for the next month.  When Monday comes around, Scout goes with him to keep him company, and the days drag by. 
 
 
When she dies a month later, Atticus informs them that Mrs. Dubose was a morphine addict who had decided she was not going to die addicted to the drug.  Jem’s afternoons of reading to her broke her from her addiction, and she was able to die in peace.
 
 
===Chapter 12 ===
 
 
As summer begins Scout is crushed to discover that Dill will not be joining them.  When Atticus has to go out of town for two weeks, Calpurnia decides that she will take them to church with her.  Aside from one woman, Jem and Scout are welcomed into the African church with open arms and they’re amazed to see how different it is from their own staid church service.
 
 
They’re also amazed to find out that the church collection is going to Helen Robinson, Tom’s wife, and the Reverend is not letting anyone leave until they’ve collected $10, which is what she needs each week to support her kids.  Purses are scraped and pockets searched, and finally everyone comes up with enough money and the doors are opened.
 
 
They also find out that Tom is in jail because he’s accused of raping Bob Ewell’s daughter, Mayelle (who is white), which is why the entire town is in an uproar over Atticus taking on the case.
 
 
When they get back home from church, they find Aunt Alexandra on the front porch swing waiting for them.
 
 
===Chapter 13 ===
 
 
As Scout and Jem begin to question Aunt Alexandra, she tells them she’s come to stay awhile (which could be days or years, according to Maycomb’s customs).  She settles in and the county welcomes her with open arms, although she certainly adds a formidable presence to Jem and Scout’s daily routine.  She begins trying to instruct the two on how to be a proper Finch (since they come from, in her words, a Fine Family) but both Scout and Jem have no interest in becoming a little gentleman and a little lady, and hardly bother trying to learn.
 
 
===Chapter 14 ===
 
 
As life continues on with Aunty in the house, one night Scout goes to bed and steps on something soft and warm and round, which she thinks is a snake.  After calling Jem in for a thorough investigation under her bed they find Dill under there, dirty and starving and still his same old self.
 
 
Scout finds out that the reason why Dill ran off was because his parents just aren’t interested in him, and he spends most of his days alone.  He spends the night with them, uncertain what the next day will bring.
 
 
===Chapter 15 ===
 
 
It’s decided a week later that Dill will stay in Maycomb with his Aunt Rachel, which makes Scout and Jem happy.
 
 
One night they’re all relaxing in the living room when Mr. Heck Tate, the sheriff, comes knocking at the door with a group of men, warning Atticus that the local group of no-accounts might try to come at Tom Robinson this weekend.  He is being held in the Maycomb jail.
 
 
The next night Atticus mysteriously leaves the house and on a hunch Jem, Scout and Dill go looking for him in town.  They finally find him reading a book on the porch at the jailhouse.  Once Jem is satisfied that Atticus is ok they turn to go, but suddenly a line of cars pull up and a group of men get out and surround the porch. 
 
 
Things get serious when Scout, Jem, and Dill rush into the crowd to Atticus’s defense, and although he tells them to go home they don’t budge.  Scout realizes that these men are strangers, and that they’re here to get Tom Robinson.
 
 
Scout finally sees that she does know one man in the crowd, Mr. Cunningham, Walter’s father, and as she tries to make conversation with him the entire group falls silent, listening to her talk about Walter and Mr. Cunningham’s entailment, which Atticus is currently helping him out on.  Although she doesn’t realize it, she makes them all realize that they are acting barbaric and finally it’s Mr. Cunningham who calls off the mob and makes everyone go home.   
 
 
===Chapter 16 ===
 
 
The next morning, Saturday, the whole county begins to file into town to watch Tom Robinson’s trial.  Jem and Scout run a constant commentary for Dill, explaining the backgrounds and tendencies of everyone that passes.  After lunch they head into town themselves to watch the trial.  Due to the immense crowd there’s no room downstairs but Reverend Sykes, the black preacher from Calpurnia’s church, gives them seats in the colored section upstairs.  When they get up there and sit down, they see the first witness is Mr. Heck Tate.
 
 
===Chapter 17 ===
 
 
As Atticus begins to question the sheriff, who was the one that immediately saw Mayelle after she was raped, he immediately begins to find holes in his testimony that proves there is no way that Tom Robinson could have beaten and raped the girl, although at this time the jury and crowd don’t really know where he’s going with his questioning.  All that is apparent is that Mayelle’s right eye was blackened and that all around her throat was bruised, as if two strong hands had tried to strangle her.
 
 
The next witness to take the stand is Mayelle’s father, Bob Ewell, who is poor, uneducated, and downright mean-spirited.  As Atticus begins to question him, it becomes finally apparent to Jem where he’s going.  He suddenly sees that there is no doubt that it was Bob Ewell who beat up Mayelle and then pointed the finger at Tom.  Scout still doesn’t see it, however, and thinks Jem is counting his chickens before they’re hatched.  As she looks at the back of Tom Robinson, who is big and strong, she thinks he easily could have hurt Mayelle.
 
 
===Chapter 18 ===
 
 
Mayelle is the next to take the stand, and as Atticus questions her he begins to poke holes in her testimony as well.  Finally he asks Tom Robinson to stand up so Mayelle can identify him, and everyone sees that his left arm is fully 12 inches shorter than his right, and is crippled and unusable.  Scout finally sees that there is no way he could have choked Mayelle and blacked out her right eye.  It’s a physical impossibility.
 
 
He then begins to ask her if it was really her father that beat her up but she refuses to say, and she refuses to say another word after she accuses Tom Robinson one more time.
 
 
===Chapter 19 ===
 
 
The next and last witness is Tom Robinson himself.  Tom tells the jury that he went into Mayelle’s yard lots of time to help her with little chores, and that she was always asking for his help.  When he starts talking about the night of the rape he tells everyone that Mayelle invited him in to do a chore and then started coming on to him, trying to kiss him, and it was her father that saw what she was trying to do through the window.  Tom tried to resist her without hurting her, and as soon as he could get away he took off running.  He is soft-spoken and polite. But he makes the mistake of telling Mr. Gilmore that the reason he helped Mayelle is because he felt sorry for her. And in those times, a black man feeling sorry for a white woman or even saying it may as well be a crime.
 
 
During the cross examination by Mr. Gilmore Dill begins crying and can’t stop, so Scout takes him outside for some fresh air.  Dill can’t get over how cruel Mr. Gilmore (the prosecutor) is to Tom Robinson, and another man is outside the courthouse and knows exactly why Dill is so upset.
 
 
===Chapter 20 ===
 
 
The man is Mr. Dolphus Raymond, a local character who is ostracized because he married a black woman.  To tone down the talk about him around the town he pretends to be a drunk, but it is really Coca Cola that is in the paper sack he carries around.  He tells Dill that people can be very cruel sometimes and that it makes him sick too.  Scout knows she shouldn’t be out talking to this sinful man, but she finds him nice and fascinating.
 
 
When they get back inside the courthouse they find Atticus in the middle of his closing statement, and Jem is convinced they’re going to win the case since Tom Robinson could not have physically done what Mayelle is accusing him of.
 
 
===Chapter 21 ===
 
 
When they go home that evening for dinner they can hardly wait to go back to the courthouse because they don’t want to miss the verdict.  They wolf down their supper and race back.  The jury stays out a long time, till almost midnight, deciding on a verdict, and Scout falls asleep waiting to hear.  Finally they come back with a verdict:  guilty.
 
 
===Chapter 22 ===
 
 
Jem starts to cry, and can’t believe the jury would convict Tom when it was so obvious he hadn’t done it.  He and Scout are both in shock.
 
 
The next morning they’re all surprised at the amount of food that was left on the back porch from people in the community, mostly from Calpurnia’s neighborhood, to tell Atticus "thank you" for defending Tom Robinson, in spite of the verdict.
 
 
They have a conversation with Miss Maudie who tells them that it wasn’t just Atticus trying to help Tom Robinson.  They Judge was trying, Mr. Heck Tate was trying, there were lots of people behind the scene trying.  They might of lost the case, she says, but only Atticus could have kept a jury out so long deciding.  In her mind, it’s a baby step towards equality.
 
 
===Chapter 23 ===
 
 
The next drama of the day is that Bob Ewell spits in the face of Atticus and says he’ll get him back for embarrassing him so badly in court.  Atticus passes it off as an empty threat, and does his best to assuage the fears of Jem and Scout, who are very worried for him.
 
  
Atticus has not lost hope for Tom Robinson, either.  There’s still the appeal, which he’s confident that they have a good chance of winning.
+
==Scene Summaries==
  
As Jem and Scout discuss the lives and ways of Maycomb county folks after the trial, they begin to realize something disturbing about human nature, and the ways people can come up with to just be mean spirited. Jem begins to understand that the reason Boo Radley never comes out of his house is not because he can't, but is because he doesn’t want to come out.
+
===Act 1 ===
 +
====Scene 1====
 +
Quickly and without much ado, the three witches appear on a Scottish moor during a thunder and lightening storm and make plans to meet again after the battle to deal with Macbeth. They quickly disappear.
  
===Chapter 24 ===
+
====Scene 2====
 +
King Duncan is attended by a captain recently wounded while saving Duncan’s son Malcolm from capture by the Irish. He tells Duncan of how Macbeth and Banquo, the two generals, have defeated the Irish and Norwegian armies and how Macbeth had vanquished and killed the traitor Macdonald.
 +
The Thane of Ross soon enters and tells Duncan of how the Thane of Cawdor defected and joined the Norwegian forces to fight against the Scottish. Duncan announces that Macbeth shall take the role of Thane of Cawdor as a reward for having led the victorious army in battle. Ross departs to share the news with Macbeth.
  
As September inches closer Scout is introduced to formal tea time, hosted by Aunt Alexandra, who is on a relentless campaign to teach her to be a lady. As Scout navigates through the social hour she’s lost on how ladies can look so pretty and delicate, and yet trap each other with conversation, revealing an aggressiveness you can’t really see except when they talk to each otherShe decides she feels much more at home in her father’s world.  
+
====Scene 3====
 +
The witches reappear on the moor, discussing their powers and the recent acts they’ve managed to complete, one describing her killing swine and another who has planned revenge upon a sailor whose wife did not properly share chestnuts.
 +
Macbeth and Banquo soon appear and are addressed by the three witches. They address Macbeth at first as the Thane of Glamis and then as the Thane of Cawdor. Confused by their statements, Macbeth is further confused when they announce that he will one day be the King of Scotland. As a third prophecy, they announce that Banquo is at the same time lesser and greater than Macbeth and that his sons will sit on the throne but that he will not.
 +
The two discuss the prophecies with each other, confused by the encounter until Ross arrives to bring them to the king. He announces to Macbeth that he has been made Thane of Cawdor. Immediately Macbeth begins musing on how the first prophecy came true, asking of Banquo if he would enjoy his sons as kings. Banquo’s response is tempered more than Macbeth’s, saying that these things are often only half truthsMacbeth begins to ponder exactly what the prophecy might mean and whether he could one day be king.
  
When Atticus comes home early from work and interrupts tea Scout knows something’s up. She follows him into the kitchen and learns that Tom Robinson is dead. He made a break for it at the prison and was shot by the guards.  Atticus enlists the help of Calpurnia to go and tell Tom’s wife, Helen.  Scout, Miss Maudie, and Aunt Alexandra pull themselves together and rejoin the ladies at tea.  
+
====Scene 4====
 +
Duncan hears the news of the Thane of Cawdor’s execution, of how he repented his crimes and died a noble death. When Macbeth and Banquo finally return, Duncan greets them as heroes and declares to Macbeth the reward for his deeds. He also announces that his son Malcolm shall be made heir to the throne, to which Macbeth notes that only Malcolm is in his way of the throne now.  
 +
Plans are made for Duncan to dine at Macbeth’s castle that night and goes ahead of everyone to inform his wife of the impending arrival of the king and what has transpired that day.  
  
===Chapter 25 ===
+
====Scene 5====
 +
Back at Inverness, Macbeth’s castle and home, Lady Macbeth reads a letter from her husband describing the events that occurred during the day, immediately believing and recognizing the potential of the prophecies. She decides that certain things must be done to make the rest of the prophecy come true and goes on to describe the weakness of her husband. She decides immediately that King Duncan must be murdered and when Macbeth arrives back home she goes about describing to him what they must do to ensure he never leaves Inverness Castle.
  
Jem and Dill were able to witness the sad affair of Atticus having to tell Helen that Tom is dead, as his car passed them as they were walking back from swimming at Barkers Eddy. Atticus was very gentle about it, but Helen fainted away. The town of Maycomb was interested in Tom’s death for about two days, and then moved on to other things.  
+
====Scene 6====
 +
Duncan and the other Scottish nobility arrive at Inverness castle where he comments on how pleasant the castle and its surrounding environments are. Lady Macbeth comes out to greet him and tells him of how it is her duty to be hospitable and welcome the king to her home. Duncan then asks to be brought to Macbeth.
  
Jem tells Scout that he heard from the grapevine that Mr. Ewell was threatened them again, saying that there was one down and two to go. Jem believes that he’s all talk and warns Scout not to breathe a word to Atticus, and not to worry.  
+
====Scene 7====
 +
Macbeth goes about pondering the act that he has nearly decided to do. He thinks on the nature of the deed, wondering if it’s right to kill a man who is his king and his guest. He thinks on how popular the king is and how virtuous he is and eventually decides that the only reason to kill the king is to serve his own ambitions.  
 +
When Lady Macbeth reenters the room and Macbeth announces that he’s decided against killing the King, to which she immediately attacks him and his manhood. He asks of the consequences and she declares that they will be fine so long as they remain resolute in their determination.
 +
Her plan is to bribe the King’s chamberlains with drink and get them drunk enough that they forget themselves and give up easy access to the King’s chambers. After they are sufficiently drunk, they will sneak in and kill the king, then smear the blood on the drunken chamberlains so as to lay the blame at someone else’s feet. Finally, Macbeth consents, remarking that he hopes their children are male, lest another female such as Lady Macbeth with her “undaunted mettle” is born.
  
===Chapter 26 ===
+
===Act 2===
 +
====Scene 1====
 +
Macbeth is on his way to the King’s chambers and along the way is confronted by Banquo and his son Fleance. The two are up late, unable to sleep and Banquo explains to Macbeth that his dreams are plagued by the witches and their prophecies. The two discuss the sisters and when Banquo asks if they have revealed some “truth” to Macbeth, he replies that he has not thought on their words at all. They once again agree to talk on the matter later and they part ways.
 +
Macbeth proceeds carefully and immediately sees a dagger floating in the air pointing towards Duncan’s bed chambers. The dagger appears to have blood on it and when Macbeth grasps at it, he cannot take hold. He decides that it must be a manifestation of his unease over killing the King and realizes how dark and foreboding the night around him is. Finally, he hears the bell rung by Lady Macbeth signaling that the Chamberlains are sufficiently drunk.
  
As school starts Jem begins high school (7th grade) and Scout rarely sees him until dark. She’s in 3rd grade now, and although the Radley place ceases to terrify her she still thinks about Boo, and regrets ever tormenting him the way they used to.  
+
====Scene 2====
 +
Lady Macbeth appears after Macbeth has left on comments on how clever she is. She ponders Macbeth’s cry in the dark and the fact that he could easily have made a mistake. She muses on how she could have killed the King herself when preparing the daggers for the chamberlains, but could not because he looked so much like her father sleeping.  
 +
When finally Macbeth returns, his hands are bloodied and he is visibly shaken. He notes how he heard the chamberlains wake and say a prayer, unable himself to say Amen to the prayer. He also notes how he believed he heard a voice invoke his crime after he had killed the king.
 +
At first Lady Macbeth tries to sooth her husband but soon becomes angry after realizing that he failed to leave the daggers on the chamberlains to frame them for the murder. He refuses to go back to the room again, forcing her to plant the daggers herself. He begins to hear knocking on the doors, sure that he’s been found out and begins worrying of his horrible deed. She finally returns and takes him to wash the blood from his hands, stating ironically that a simple wash of the hands clears them of the deed.
  
One day in class they start talking about Adolf Hitler, and Scout discovers that her teacher, Miss Gates, hates Hitler and feels strongly that his persecution of Jews is wrong.  Scout is confused about this, however, because during the summer at the trial she heard Miss Gates distinctly saying ugly things about Tom Robinson, and how this should teach them all a lesson. When she asks Jem about it, why Miss Gates can hate Hitler and yet feel Tom Robinson’s verdict is justified because he’s black, Jem gets very upset and yells at her not to ever talk about that trial to him again.  
+
====Scene 3====
 +
The porter of the castle allows the knocking to continue for some time longer, musing on how he would porter the gates of hell and who he would let in. He finally opens the door to let in Lennox and Macduff, having arrived to prepare the King for departure. Macbeth is one of the few people in the castle still awake and leads the two men to the king’s bed chambers where they discover that the King has been murdered and the news spreads quickly. Everyone arrives, including Lady Macbeth, Duncan’s sons, and the other nobles and chaos ensues. Finally Macbeth arrives again and declares that he has killed the two chamberlains who are responsible in his rage.
 +
Macduff declares his own wariness of the two new deaths, while Macbeth professes his fury at the death of his king as motivation for their execution. Lady Macbeth faints suddenly and is rushed free of the stage. Malcolm and Donalbian whisper to each other that they must flee to stay safe from the murderer as who ever killed their father will likely desire their deaths as well. Banquo and Macbeth gather the nobles and prepare to meet and discuss the matter of Duncan’s death.
  
When she goes to Atticus for comfort he tells her that Jem is just trying to come to terms with something in his head, and when he does he’ll start being himself again.  
+
====Scene 4====
 +
Ross, the thane from early in the play and an old man walk outside discussing the matters of the last few days. He describes the owl that killed the falcon and the king’s well trained horses eating each other. The day itself is dark and the two are properly quieted by the mood. Macduff soon enters the seen and tells Ross that Macbeth has been made King and that he will soon ride to Scone to be crowned.
 +
Because of the departure of the sons so soon after the king’s murder there is suspicion that they may have paid off the chamberlains to kill the king. Macduff announces that he will return to his home in Fife and Ross sets out for Scone to see to the coronation.
  
===Chapter 27 ===
+
===Act 3===
 +
====Scene 1====
 +
Banquo enters and muses on the prophecies of the three witches. The first two have come true now and so he wonders if the third might be a possibility and that his sons will some day sit on the throne. The stir of ambition begins to appear for Banquo as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in their royal attire appear, inviting Banquo to the feast for the evening. Banquo accepts and tells Macbeth of the ride he plans to go on later that day. Macbeth mentions to Banquo that they must discuss the matter of Duncan’s sons who have fled and are likely plotting against the crown.
 +
Banquo leaves the room and Macbeth discusses a few smaller matters of state with his servant before he departs as well. At this point, Macbeth begins a soliloquy on the matter of Banquo and the succession. He worries that he will not produce an heir and that Banquo’s sons will overthrow him later, taking the throne as the witches foresaw.
 +
Macbeth’s servant reenters with the murderers he has hired and reminds them of the “wrongs” committed against them by Banquo and they agree once more to kill Macbeth’s former comrade. He reminds them to also kill Fleance, Banquo’s son and they depart.
  
As October crawls forward a few things happen in town.  The Judge finds a nighttime crawler in his yard but doesn’t see who it is.  Helen Robinson, Tom’s wife, starts working for Mr. Link Deas, Tom’s old employer, who offers her a job because he feels so badly about what happened to Tom.  She has to go a mile out of her way to avoid the Ewell place, because each time she passes they antagonize her. When Mr. Deas finds out about it he goes over to the Ewell place and threatens Mr. Ewell to leave Helen alone.  The next day Mr. Ewell follows Helen all the way to work and Mr. Deas has to chew him out again.  To Aunt Alexandra, it bodes trouble.  
+
====Scene 2====
 +
Lady Macbeth is full of unrest and calls for Macbeth to attend to her. He announces his own misgivings and upon doing so, declares that he has arranged for yet another horrible deed to be undertaken to ensure the throne, that there are too many more threats to the throne that must be dealt with. He asks his wife to be happier and kind to Banquo at dinner so as the he will be unsuspecting and that he will successfully be dealt with and eliminated as a threat to the throne.
  
As Halloween approaches Scout learns that she will be required to participate in the school pageant, an agricultural themed production where she’ll be playing the part of "Pork". Her costume is a large ham hock fashioned out of brown cloth and chicken wire. Everyone else is too worn out to come to the night’s pageant, so Scout and Jem go alone.  
+
====Scene 3====
 +
The murderers await Banquo and Fleance in the woods outside the castle. When the two arrive and light a torch after dismounting the murderers attack. They quickly kill Banquo who urges Fleance to run and save himself, to avenge his death. After the torch is extinguished, Fleance flees and the murderers move to return to Macbeth with Banquo’s body in tow.
  
===Chapter 28 ===
+
====Scene 4====
 +
Back at the castle, Macbeth and his wife welcome the Scottish noble persons to the feast. Directly before the feast, Macbeth is approached by the murderers and told of what has happened with Banquo and his son. He recomposes himself and returns to the feast where he raises an imaginary toast to his friend.
 +
He then sees the ghost of Banquo and much like with the visage of the dagger, he starts to feel the pressure of the acts he has performed and their relevant effects on his life. He is at alternating times courageous and depressed, unsure of himself and losing his tenuous grip on reality. Lady Macbeth attempts to sooth him, sending away the noblemen and trying to calm him
 +
Macbeth however is already planning to murder Macduff and declares his intentions to go and see the three witches once more for advice and prophecies. He decides that Macduff’s actions border on treason as he plans to stay away from court and keep his own counsel.
  
It’s a really dark night, but Scout has fun playing the various games the school put on before the pageant.  The entire county is there to watch the show, and Scout invariably falls asleep waiting for her part in the play and makes her entrance much too late.  She’s mortified, but it makes everyone laugh. Because she’s so embarrassed about her performance she asks Jem to wait until most of the people have left the school before they begin walking home.  
+
====Scene 5====
 +
The witches appear on yet another stormy set, this time with the Goddess Hecate among them, scolding them for taking on Macbeth without her leave. She decides she will take over matters with Macbeth and tells the three witches to bring to Macbeth visions that will offer him a false sense of security when he visits them the next day.
  
As they start their journey back home in the pitch black dark, Jem begins to hear someone following them. At first they think it’s their friend, Cecil, trying to scare them, but they begin to realize that it’s not. Before they know what’s hit them they’re attacked from whomever is following them.  Scout is crushed under her costume, and then Jem screams.  She can’t see a thing, and then things grow quiet and she realizes there are now 4 people under the tree.  
+
====Scene 6====
 +
Elsewhere in Scotland Lennox discusses matters with an unnamed lord, commenting on the murder of Banquo. The official position is that Fleance murdered his father and fled. However, the two men suspect Macbeth is the culprit and refer to him as a tyrant. The lord announces that Macduff has fled to England where he has joined forces with Malcolm in trying to convince England to offer aid against Macbeth. Macbeth for his part has raised his forces in preparation for war with Malcolm.
  
Scout stumbles out into the road, calling for Jem, and then sees a man walking unsteadily, carrying Jem in front of him towards their house.  
+
===Act 4===
 +
====Scene 1====
 +
Upon his return to the three witches, Macbeth demands a series of apparitions to help him discern his future. The witches comply by offering him three such visions. The first is a disembodied head, bloodied and reminding Macbeth of Macduff, warning Macbeth to beware the fled nobleman. The second is a blood soaked child who comforts Macbeth that he cannot be killed by any man born of woman. The final apparition is a child wearing a crown who says Macbeth will be king until the Birnam wood comes to Dunsinane.
 +
Macbeth is encouraged and lightened by this news and asks whether Banquo’s sons will succeed him. The witches respond with an apparition of the procession of kings, with the final king carrying a mirror and the procession ended with Banquo’s ghost. The witches then vanish and Lennox enters with news that Macduff has fled for England. Macbeth decides that he will capture Macduff’s castle and kill his family.  
  
When she gets inside Atticus quickly calls the doctor and the Sheriff, and none of them know how badly Jem is hurt until Dr. Reynolds gets there and informs them that he’s got a broken arm.  
+
====Scene 2====
 +
In Macduff’s castle, Lady Macduff questions Ross as to why her husband has fled. He tries to reaffirm for her that she must trust her husband. She tells her son that Macduff has died, though he does not quite believe her.
 +
When a messenger arrives afterward, telling her she is in danger and warning her to flee, she argues that she has done nothing to deserve such danger. The murderers arrive afterwards and denounce Macduff. When his son calls them liars, they stab him and chase after Lady Macduff, assumedly to murder her as well.
  
Heck Tate gets there next and tells them all that Bob Ewell is lying under the tree where they were attacked, dead with a kitchen knife stuck in his ribs.  
+
====Scene 3====
 +
Macduff and Malcolm stand outside of Edward’s castle in England and Malcolm decides he must test Macduff to see if he is loyal to the crown and to him. He begins to declare how he is unfit for the crown, listing his vices and his issues with leadership. Macduff eventually breaks down and announces that Malcolm is indeed unfit to rule the country, proving that he is loyal. Malcolm then announces that he was lying to Macduff and that the latter has proven himself.
 +
Soon afterward, Ross arrives and tells the two that everything is well with Macduff’s family and that they should return to Scotland to see to the country since it has gone into such disarray with Macbeth as the king. When Malcolm announces that he will only return with 10,000 English troops, Ross breaks down and admits that Macduff’s family has been murdered. Macduff, crushed with grief, is urged by Malcolm to turn his grief to anger and unleash it upon Macbeth.  
  
===Chapter 29 ===
+
===Act 5===
 +
====Scene 1====
 +
A doctor and a waiting-gentlewoman discuss Lady Macbeth’s recent habit of sleepwalking. She enters in yet another bemoaned state and begins to wail about the deaths of Banquo and Lady Macduff. She claims there is blood on her hands and that she cannot wash it free. As she walks away, the doctor and waiting-woman discuss Lady Macbeth's descent into madness.
  
Scout tells them all what happened leading up to the attack. The man that carried Jem into the house is still in the room with them, but he’s so silent and in the shadows that they pretty much forget he’s there. Heck Tate tells them that Scout’s costume probably saved her life, as there is a slash mark through the chicken wire where Bob Ewell tried to stab her.  
+
====Scene 2====
 +
Beyond the castle gates, the Scottish lords are discussing the approaching English forces. The Scottish forces themselves will meet up with Malcolm and Macduff at the Birnam Wood. Macbeth, the tyrant as they refer to him, has gone into a rage, fortifying the castle at Dunsinane.  
  
When she gets to the end of her story she realizes that the man who saved their lives, the man who carried Jem home, is Boo Radley.  
+
====Scene 3====
 +
Macbeth appears with his doctor in tow, claiming he cannot die because no man born of woman can kill him and he cannot lose because the Birnam Wood cannot physically move. He insists on wearing his armor hours before the battle and raves madly at his servants when they announce the arrival of 10,000 English troops. When the doctor announces that Lady Macbeth is struck with delusions, Macbeth tells him to cure her of them.
  
===Chapter 30 ===
+
====Scene 4====
 +
In the Birnam Wood, Malcolm discusses the fortifications Macbeth has established at the castle. They decide that they should prepare for the battle by cutting boughs from the forest to disguise their numbers as they march on the castle.
  
As Dr. Reynolds starts to set Jem’s arm they all head to the front porch, where Boo will be more comfortable in the shadows. Scout leads him out and sits beside him in the deepest shadow.  
+
====Scene 5====
 +
While Macbeth is declaring the impenetrability of his fortress and preparing for the coming onslaught with banners and whatnot, an attendant arrives and declares that Queen is dead. Following a sudden depression and quietness on his part another attendant arrives and declares that the Birnam Wood is marching on Dunsinane. He recalls the prophecy about the wood and readies for the fight, preparing to die.
  
Atticus and Heck Tate get into a battle of wills over who really killed Bob Ewell.  Atticus believes Jem did it, and refuses to have the affair "hushed up" so it’s hanging over Jem’s head and the county has ample material for gossip.  Heck Tate contends that Bob Ewell fell on his knife, and flat out refuses to tell anyone that Boo Radley killed him (which is what really happened).  His reason is because he knows all the ladies of Maycomb county would be by Boo’s house bringing him cakes to thank him, and he knows Boo doesn’t want to be dragged into the limelight.  Finally, Atticus agrees to the story, and thanks Boo for saving his children.
+
====Scene 6====
 +
Malcolm orders the English men to throw down their boughs and the fight commences outside the castle.
  
===Chapter 31 ===
+
====Scene 7====
 +
Macbeth fights vigorously, pompous in that he knows no man born of woman can kill him. He slays a lord’s son and disappears into the fray.
 +
Macduff appears from the battle, searching frantically for Macbeth, wanting to personally see to his death. He then disappears back into the battle.
 +
Malcolm and Siward arrive again and enter the castle.
 +
Macbeth and Macduff finally confront each other and fight. Macbeth announces that no man can kill him of a woman’s womb. However, Macduff announces that he was torn from his mother’s womb (through surgery) and Macbeth immediately fears for his life, but will not surrender to Macduff. The two exit the stage fighting.
 +
Malcolm and Siward enter the castle after conquering it and confront Ross with the news that Macbeth has killed Siward’s son. Macduff soon after arrives with Macbeth’s head on a pole and declares Malcolm King of Scotland. Honoring the English system of nobility, Malcolm names all of his Thanes as Earls and curses Macbeth and his queen. He then calls for all of his subjects to attend him at the coronation at Scone and the plays ends.
  
Scout leads Boo back into the house one last time so he can say goodbye to Jem, who is still sleeping, and then she walks him home.  After he goes inside she stands on his front porch and realizes that she can see the entire neighborhood.  She understands that all through the years Boo has watched them grow up, playing games and living their lives.  She begins to understand that maybe she and Jem did give something to Boo after all. She gives him a hug and heads back home.
 
  
  
[[Category:Summaries]]
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[[category:Summaries]]
[[Category:Classic Novels]]
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[[category:Plays]]
[[Category:Fiction]]
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[[category:Fiction]]
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[[category:William Shakespeare]]

Revision as of 19:37, 28 February 2019


The play opens with Macbeth and Banquo, two of the Scottish King Duncan’s generals returning from battle when they encounter three witches in the woods. The witches tell Macbeth of how he will become the Thane of Cawdor and then the King of Scotland. For Banquo, they prophesize that he will beget the line of Scottish Kings, though he will never become king himself. The two are sufficiently skeptical and continue their journey home.

However, when the two come closer to the encampment, they are presented with a messenger from King Duncan who announces that Macbeth has been made the Thane of Cawdor, immediately putting the prophecy into perspective, making Macbeth wonder how he might become king. He invites Duncan to dine at his castle that evening and goes ahead to tell his wife of the day’s events.

Unlike Macbeth, Lady Macbeth is very sure of her husband’s future, desiring the throne and telling him that they must murder Duncan to ensure his ascension. Immediately upon returning to his castle, Lady Macbeth is able to convince her husband to take initiative and murder Duncan that very night.

The two plan to get Duncan’s chamberlains drunk enough that they will not remember the evening and blame them for the murder. When the body of Duncan is discovered in the morning, Macbeth quickly kills the “culprits” and assumes the kingship. All the while, Duncan’s sons flee the country, afraid for their own lives.

Immediately, Macbeth’s misgivings and trust in the prophecies force his hand in the murder of Banquo and his son Fleance as well, afraid that his heirs will seize the throne. Successfully killing Banquo, the murderers fail to kill Fleance.

The night of his murder, Banquo’s ghost appears to Macbeth and sends him into hysteria, scaring his guests and angering his wife. His very presence as the king of Scotland has angered the other nobles and further incites Macbeth’s misgivings and paranoia.

To ease his fears, he visits the witches again and they offer to him more prophecies. He must beware of Macduff, a chief opponent to Macbeth taking the throne. He cannot be harmed by any man born of woman and he is safe until Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane Castle. He returns home and finds that Macduff has fled to England to join Malcom. In fear, Macbeth seizes Macduff’s castle and orders the murder of his wife and children, inciting Macduff to further rage. With Malcom, the two raise an army and ride to Scotland to take on Macbeth with the support of the Scottish nobles who fear Macbeth’s tyranny and murderous ways.

While Macbeth awaits his opponents, Lady Macbeth is in the process of going mad, unable to wash the blood from her hands. The news of her suicide reaches Macbeth directly before the arrival of the English forces and sends him into an even deeper despair. He awaits confidently as the prophecy foretold his invulnerability. However, Macduff’s forces arrive under the cover of boughs cut from Birnam wood. When Macbeth is finally confronted by Macduff after his forces have been overwhelmed, Macduff announces that he was “ripped from his mother’s womb” not born and ultimately defeats and beheads Macbeth, handing the crown back to Malcolm, the rightful heir.


Character Summaries

Macbeth

As one of King Duncan’s chief generals and closest military advisers, Macbeth is led to perform wicked deeds by the prophecies of three witches and the machinations of his wife. When he is pronounced Thane of Cawdor for his military victories – a prophecy come true before his ascension to the kingship – he is tempted into murder to fulfill the second prophecy. One he is crowned king, his brutal plans are made all the easier as he begins killing indiscriminately to ensure his throne. He is not subtle, nor effective as he riles the entire Scottish nobility against his tyrannous ways and ultimately falls before the might of his own psychological pressure and the might of his opposition.


Lady Macbeth

As Macbeth’s wife, Lady Macbeth is the early instigator of the atrocious plans that lead to Macbeth’s Kingship. She is ambitious and power hungry and her machinations are as cold and vicious as her husband’s actions. However, after the bloodshed begins she is incapable of bearing the weight of what she has done and soon falls victim to the weight of her guilt, eventually going mad and committing suicide. Despite the horrible nature of her and her husband’s crimes, the two are a very close couple very much so in love.

The Witches

There are three witches, plotting mischief against Macbeth through their prophecy and spells. Their predictions are responsible for prompting him to murder Duncan and Banquo, and give him cause to believe his is invincible later on. There are no details as to the origin or nature of the witches, other than that they serve Hecate. Numerous similarities between them and mythological beings have been drawn, but none are of clear relation.

Banquo

A second of Duncan’s generals, he is with Macbeth when the witches tell their first prophecy, foretelling his children to inherit the throne. He is equally ambitious, but does not take the action that Macbeth does in securing his ambitions. Rather, he is the path not chosen, that of inaction and decency. His ghost later haunts Macbeth accordingly for his murder, reminding Macbeth of the choices he made.

Duncan

Duncan is presented as the antithesis to Macbeth in terms of rulers. He is kind, virtuous, and a brilliant leader. His death at Macbeth’s hands throws the nation into disarray until the throne can be rightfully returned to his family.

Macduff

A nobleman who right away opposes Macbeth’s ascension to the throne. After fleeing Scotland to find Malcolm, Macbeth murders his wife and son, creating a personal reason for revenge. He is a principle figure in removing Macbeth from the throne and giving it back to Malcolm and is the only man who can kill Macbeth.

Malcolm

The eldest of Duncan’s two sons, Malcolm immediately flees Scotland after the murder of his father. With Macduff’s help however, he is able to muster the forces he needs to take on Macbeth and regain the throne, thus restoring the order to Scotland that was lost when Duncan was murdered.

Fleance

Important because of his role in the prophecy of the three witches, Fleance survives the murder of his father and attempted murder of himself by Macbeth and goes on to disappear through the play’s ending.

Lennox

A Scottish nobleman.

Ross

A Scottish nobleman.

The Murderers

The men hired by Macbeth to murder both Banquo and his son and Macduff’s family. They fail to kill Fleance.

Porter

The drunken doorman of Macbeth’s castle.

Lady Macduff

Macduff’s wife and victim of yet another of Macbeth’s atrocities. Her household is shown in sharp contrast to that of Lady Macbeth’s, much more tranquil and less violent.

Donalbain

Duncan’s son and Malcolm’s younger brother.


Scene Summaries

Act 1

Scene 1

Quickly and without much ado, the three witches appear on a Scottish moor during a thunder and lightening storm and make plans to meet again after the battle to deal with Macbeth. They quickly disappear.

Scene 2

King Duncan is attended by a captain recently wounded while saving Duncan’s son Malcolm from capture by the Irish. He tells Duncan of how Macbeth and Banquo, the two generals, have defeated the Irish and Norwegian armies and how Macbeth had vanquished and killed the traitor Macdonald. The Thane of Ross soon enters and tells Duncan of how the Thane of Cawdor defected and joined the Norwegian forces to fight against the Scottish. Duncan announces that Macbeth shall take the role of Thane of Cawdor as a reward for having led the victorious army in battle. Ross departs to share the news with Macbeth.

Scene 3

The witches reappear on the moor, discussing their powers and the recent acts they’ve managed to complete, one describing her killing swine and another who has planned revenge upon a sailor whose wife did not properly share chestnuts. Macbeth and Banquo soon appear and are addressed by the three witches. They address Macbeth at first as the Thane of Glamis and then as the Thane of Cawdor. Confused by their statements, Macbeth is further confused when they announce that he will one day be the King of Scotland. As a third prophecy, they announce that Banquo is at the same time lesser and greater than Macbeth and that his sons will sit on the throne but that he will not. The two discuss the prophecies with each other, confused by the encounter until Ross arrives to bring them to the king. He announces to Macbeth that he has been made Thane of Cawdor. Immediately Macbeth begins musing on how the first prophecy came true, asking of Banquo if he would enjoy his sons as kings. Banquo’s response is tempered more than Macbeth’s, saying that these things are often only half truths. Macbeth begins to ponder exactly what the prophecy might mean and whether he could one day be king.

Scene 4

Duncan hears the news of the Thane of Cawdor’s execution, of how he repented his crimes and died a noble death. When Macbeth and Banquo finally return, Duncan greets them as heroes and declares to Macbeth the reward for his deeds. He also announces that his son Malcolm shall be made heir to the throne, to which Macbeth notes that only Malcolm is in his way of the throne now. Plans are made for Duncan to dine at Macbeth’s castle that night and goes ahead of everyone to inform his wife of the impending arrival of the king and what has transpired that day.

Scene 5

Back at Inverness, Macbeth’s castle and home, Lady Macbeth reads a letter from her husband describing the events that occurred during the day, immediately believing and recognizing the potential of the prophecies. She decides that certain things must be done to make the rest of the prophecy come true and goes on to describe the weakness of her husband. She decides immediately that King Duncan must be murdered and when Macbeth arrives back home she goes about describing to him what they must do to ensure he never leaves Inverness Castle.

Scene 6

Duncan and the other Scottish nobility arrive at Inverness castle where he comments on how pleasant the castle and its surrounding environments are. Lady Macbeth comes out to greet him and tells him of how it is her duty to be hospitable and welcome the king to her home. Duncan then asks to be brought to Macbeth.

Scene 7

Macbeth goes about pondering the act that he has nearly decided to do. He thinks on the nature of the deed, wondering if it’s right to kill a man who is his king and his guest. He thinks on how popular the king is and how virtuous he is and eventually decides that the only reason to kill the king is to serve his own ambitions. When Lady Macbeth reenters the room and Macbeth announces that he’s decided against killing the King, to which she immediately attacks him and his manhood. He asks of the consequences and she declares that they will be fine so long as they remain resolute in their determination. Her plan is to bribe the King’s chamberlains with drink and get them drunk enough that they forget themselves and give up easy access to the King’s chambers. After they are sufficiently drunk, they will sneak in and kill the king, then smear the blood on the drunken chamberlains so as to lay the blame at someone else’s feet. Finally, Macbeth consents, remarking that he hopes their children are male, lest another female such as Lady Macbeth with her “undaunted mettle” is born.

Act 2

Scene 1

Macbeth is on his way to the King’s chambers and along the way is confronted by Banquo and his son Fleance. The two are up late, unable to sleep and Banquo explains to Macbeth that his dreams are plagued by the witches and their prophecies. The two discuss the sisters and when Banquo asks if they have revealed some “truth” to Macbeth, he replies that he has not thought on their words at all. They once again agree to talk on the matter later and they part ways. Macbeth proceeds carefully and immediately sees a dagger floating in the air pointing towards Duncan’s bed chambers. The dagger appears to have blood on it and when Macbeth grasps at it, he cannot take hold. He decides that it must be a manifestation of his unease over killing the King and realizes how dark and foreboding the night around him is. Finally, he hears the bell rung by Lady Macbeth signaling that the Chamberlains are sufficiently drunk.

Scene 2

Lady Macbeth appears after Macbeth has left on comments on how clever she is. She ponders Macbeth’s cry in the dark and the fact that he could easily have made a mistake. She muses on how she could have killed the King herself when preparing the daggers for the chamberlains, but could not because he looked so much like her father sleeping. When finally Macbeth returns, his hands are bloodied and he is visibly shaken. He notes how he heard the chamberlains wake and say a prayer, unable himself to say Amen to the prayer. He also notes how he believed he heard a voice invoke his crime after he had killed the king. At first Lady Macbeth tries to sooth her husband but soon becomes angry after realizing that he failed to leave the daggers on the chamberlains to frame them for the murder. He refuses to go back to the room again, forcing her to plant the daggers herself. He begins to hear knocking on the doors, sure that he’s been found out and begins worrying of his horrible deed. She finally returns and takes him to wash the blood from his hands, stating ironically that a simple wash of the hands clears them of the deed.

Scene 3

The porter of the castle allows the knocking to continue for some time longer, musing on how he would porter the gates of hell and who he would let in. He finally opens the door to let in Lennox and Macduff, having arrived to prepare the King for departure. Macbeth is one of the few people in the castle still awake and leads the two men to the king’s bed chambers where they discover that the King has been murdered and the news spreads quickly. Everyone arrives, including Lady Macbeth, Duncan’s sons, and the other nobles and chaos ensues. Finally Macbeth arrives again and declares that he has killed the two chamberlains who are responsible in his rage. Macduff declares his own wariness of the two new deaths, while Macbeth professes his fury at the death of his king as motivation for their execution. Lady Macbeth faints suddenly and is rushed free of the stage. Malcolm and Donalbian whisper to each other that they must flee to stay safe from the murderer as who ever killed their father will likely desire their deaths as well. Banquo and Macbeth gather the nobles and prepare to meet and discuss the matter of Duncan’s death.

Scene 4

Ross, the thane from early in the play and an old man walk outside discussing the matters of the last few days. He describes the owl that killed the falcon and the king’s well trained horses eating each other. The day itself is dark and the two are properly quieted by the mood. Macduff soon enters the seen and tells Ross that Macbeth has been made King and that he will soon ride to Scone to be crowned. Because of the departure of the sons so soon after the king’s murder there is suspicion that they may have paid off the chamberlains to kill the king. Macduff announces that he will return to his home in Fife and Ross sets out for Scone to see to the coronation.

Act 3

Scene 1

Banquo enters and muses on the prophecies of the three witches. The first two have come true now and so he wonders if the third might be a possibility and that his sons will some day sit on the throne. The stir of ambition begins to appear for Banquo as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in their royal attire appear, inviting Banquo to the feast for the evening. Banquo accepts and tells Macbeth of the ride he plans to go on later that day. Macbeth mentions to Banquo that they must discuss the matter of Duncan’s sons who have fled and are likely plotting against the crown. Banquo leaves the room and Macbeth discusses a few smaller matters of state with his servant before he departs as well. At this point, Macbeth begins a soliloquy on the matter of Banquo and the succession. He worries that he will not produce an heir and that Banquo’s sons will overthrow him later, taking the throne as the witches foresaw. Macbeth’s servant reenters with the murderers he has hired and reminds them of the “wrongs” committed against them by Banquo and they agree once more to kill Macbeth’s former comrade. He reminds them to also kill Fleance, Banquo’s son and they depart.

Scene 2

Lady Macbeth is full of unrest and calls for Macbeth to attend to her. He announces his own misgivings and upon doing so, declares that he has arranged for yet another horrible deed to be undertaken to ensure the throne, that there are too many more threats to the throne that must be dealt with. He asks his wife to be happier and kind to Banquo at dinner so as the he will be unsuspecting and that he will successfully be dealt with and eliminated as a threat to the throne.

Scene 3

The murderers await Banquo and Fleance in the woods outside the castle. When the two arrive and light a torch after dismounting the murderers attack. They quickly kill Banquo who urges Fleance to run and save himself, to avenge his death. After the torch is extinguished, Fleance flees and the murderers move to return to Macbeth with Banquo’s body in tow.

Scene 4

Back at the castle, Macbeth and his wife welcome the Scottish noble persons to the feast. Directly before the feast, Macbeth is approached by the murderers and told of what has happened with Banquo and his son. He recomposes himself and returns to the feast where he raises an imaginary toast to his friend. He then sees the ghost of Banquo and much like with the visage of the dagger, he starts to feel the pressure of the acts he has performed and their relevant effects on his life. He is at alternating times courageous and depressed, unsure of himself and losing his tenuous grip on reality. Lady Macbeth attempts to sooth him, sending away the noblemen and trying to calm him Macbeth however is already planning to murder Macduff and declares his intentions to go and see the three witches once more for advice and prophecies. He decides that Macduff’s actions border on treason as he plans to stay away from court and keep his own counsel.

Scene 5

The witches appear on yet another stormy set, this time with the Goddess Hecate among them, scolding them for taking on Macbeth without her leave. She decides she will take over matters with Macbeth and tells the three witches to bring to Macbeth visions that will offer him a false sense of security when he visits them the next day.

Scene 6

Elsewhere in Scotland Lennox discusses matters with an unnamed lord, commenting on the murder of Banquo. The official position is that Fleance murdered his father and fled. However, the two men suspect Macbeth is the culprit and refer to him as a tyrant. The lord announces that Macduff has fled to England where he has joined forces with Malcolm in trying to convince England to offer aid against Macbeth. Macbeth for his part has raised his forces in preparation for war with Malcolm.

Act 4

Scene 1

Upon his return to the three witches, Macbeth demands a series of apparitions to help him discern his future. The witches comply by offering him three such visions. The first is a disembodied head, bloodied and reminding Macbeth of Macduff, warning Macbeth to beware the fled nobleman. The second is a blood soaked child who comforts Macbeth that he cannot be killed by any man born of woman. The final apparition is a child wearing a crown who says Macbeth will be king until the Birnam wood comes to Dunsinane. Macbeth is encouraged and lightened by this news and asks whether Banquo’s sons will succeed him. The witches respond with an apparition of the procession of kings, with the final king carrying a mirror and the procession ended with Banquo’s ghost. The witches then vanish and Lennox enters with news that Macduff has fled for England. Macbeth decides that he will capture Macduff’s castle and kill his family.

Scene 2

In Macduff’s castle, Lady Macduff questions Ross as to why her husband has fled. He tries to reaffirm for her that she must trust her husband. She tells her son that Macduff has died, though he does not quite believe her. When a messenger arrives afterward, telling her she is in danger and warning her to flee, she argues that she has done nothing to deserve such danger. The murderers arrive afterwards and denounce Macduff. When his son calls them liars, they stab him and chase after Lady Macduff, assumedly to murder her as well.

Scene 3

Macduff and Malcolm stand outside of Edward’s castle in England and Malcolm decides he must test Macduff to see if he is loyal to the crown and to him. He begins to declare how he is unfit for the crown, listing his vices and his issues with leadership. Macduff eventually breaks down and announces that Malcolm is indeed unfit to rule the country, proving that he is loyal. Malcolm then announces that he was lying to Macduff and that the latter has proven himself. Soon afterward, Ross arrives and tells the two that everything is well with Macduff’s family and that they should return to Scotland to see to the country since it has gone into such disarray with Macbeth as the king. When Malcolm announces that he will only return with 10,000 English troops, Ross breaks down and admits that Macduff’s family has been murdered. Macduff, crushed with grief, is urged by Malcolm to turn his grief to anger and unleash it upon Macbeth.

Act 5

Scene 1

A doctor and a waiting-gentlewoman discuss Lady Macbeth’s recent habit of sleepwalking. She enters in yet another bemoaned state and begins to wail about the deaths of Banquo and Lady Macduff. She claims there is blood on her hands and that she cannot wash it free. As she walks away, the doctor and waiting-woman discuss Lady Macbeth's descent into madness.

Scene 2

Beyond the castle gates, the Scottish lords are discussing the approaching English forces. The Scottish forces themselves will meet up with Malcolm and Macduff at the Birnam Wood. Macbeth, the tyrant as they refer to him, has gone into a rage, fortifying the castle at Dunsinane.

Scene 3

Macbeth appears with his doctor in tow, claiming he cannot die because no man born of woman can kill him and he cannot lose because the Birnam Wood cannot physically move. He insists on wearing his armor hours before the battle and raves madly at his servants when they announce the arrival of 10,000 English troops. When the doctor announces that Lady Macbeth is struck with delusions, Macbeth tells him to cure her of them.

Scene 4

In the Birnam Wood, Malcolm discusses the fortifications Macbeth has established at the castle. They decide that they should prepare for the battle by cutting boughs from the forest to disguise their numbers as they march on the castle.

Scene 5

While Macbeth is declaring the impenetrability of his fortress and preparing for the coming onslaught with banners and whatnot, an attendant arrives and declares that Queen is dead. Following a sudden depression and quietness on his part another attendant arrives and declares that the Birnam Wood is marching on Dunsinane. He recalls the prophecy about the wood and readies for the fight, preparing to die.

Scene 6

Malcolm orders the English men to throw down their boughs and the fight commences outside the castle.

Scene 7

Macbeth fights vigorously, pompous in that he knows no man born of woman can kill him. He slays a lord’s son and disappears into the fray. Macduff appears from the battle, searching frantically for Macbeth, wanting to personally see to his death. He then disappears back into the battle. Malcolm and Siward arrive again and enter the castle. Macbeth and Macduff finally confront each other and fight. Macbeth announces that no man can kill him of a woman’s womb. However, Macduff announces that he was torn from his mother’s womb (through surgery) and Macbeth immediately fears for his life, but will not surrender to Macduff. The two exit the stage fighting. Malcolm and Siward enter the castle after conquering it and confront Ross with the news that Macbeth has killed Siward’s son. Macduff soon after arrives with Macbeth’s head on a pole and declares Malcolm King of Scotland. Honoring the English system of nobility, Malcolm names all of his Thanes as Earls and curses Macbeth and his queen. He then calls for all of his subjects to attend him at the coronation at Scone and the plays ends.