Revision as of 20:28, 21 March 2008 by Jilllessa (Jill)
|This article is incomplete.|
|Released||(c. 700-1000 A.D.)|
|ISBN||ISBN 0393320979, ISBN 0451527402, ISBN 1400096227, ISBN 0140440704|
Beowulf (c. 700-1000 A.D.) is a heroic epic poem. At 3,182 lines, it is notable for its length in comparison to other Old English poems. It represents about 10% of the extant corpus of Old English poetry. The poem is untitled in the manuscript, but has been known as Beowulf since the early 19th century. Beowulf is the exciting story of a truly heroic figure who defeats three monsters and also successfully rules his people for over fifty years. The most famous part of the story of Beowulf is his fight against the monster, Grendel. The king of the Scyldings, Hrothgar, has built a wonderful hall for his thanes. They have happy parties there nightly. These parties and their happy noise annoy the monster, Grendel who lives in the marshes. Grendel thus attacks the Hall, called Heriot, at night and carries off the sleeping Scylding warriors to eat them. As a result, Heriot is no longer used and its people are haunted by the spector of Grendel for twelve years. Enter Beowulf. He has heard of the trial of the Scyldings and because Hrothgar had once helped his father, he has come to defeat the monster. The Scyldings are at first skeptical, but Hrothgar agrees to let him try. Beowulf makes the decision to fight the monster hand to hand, without sword or shield. this turns out to be the right choice, because Grendel's body would break any sword. Beowulf and his companions lie in wait within the Hall and Beowulf surprises Grendel when he comes. In the ensuing battle, Beowulf rips Grendel's arm off his shoulder and the monster escapes home, mortally wounded.
At this point, everyone celebrates, but as we shall see the celebration is premature because Grendel has a mother and she wants revenge. At the end of the celebration, the mostly inebriated thanes go to sleep in the hall but Beowulf is given his own detached room. During the night Grendel's mother comes and carries off one of the Scylding thanes as well as Grendel's detched arm which is now hanging on the wall. In the morning, Hrothgar asks Beowulf to save them from this new monster. They chase after the monster and the trail leads to a lake where they find the head of the missing thane and the bloody water where the beast enters the water. This time Beowulf takes a sword. Diving into the water, he chases the monster and cuts off her head. Then for good measure he finds Grendels body and cuts off that head as well. Now Beowulf is truly a hero. He gets much treasure from hrothgar which he duly shares with his men and goes home where he soon becomes King.
After fifty years as king, Beowulf's own kingdom is attacked by a dragon. Rather than let some younger man take on this challenge Beowulf, believing it is his responsibility, goes after it himself. He takes eleven men with him. When they get to the Dragon's cave and he attacks, all of the men who came with him run for the trees. Only one, Wiglaf, goes back to help Beowulf. Together they kill the dragon, but Beowulf is mortally wounded. Wiglaf gives Beowulf his dying wish by showing him the treasure they have won from the dragon, and Beowulf makes Wiglaf his heir before he dies. Wiglaf then goes back and exiles all the cowards still hiding in the trees. Beowulf's people bury him in a mound with all the treasure. They do not want to keep the treasure because the do not think it is righteous payment for their king whom they lived.
Beowulf Chapter Summaries
The saga begins with an overview of King Hrothgar’s ancestry. Many years before the birth of Hrothgar, his great-grandfather, King Scyld, began the Danish royal line. This powerful and influential king successfully defeated many nations in war, bringing them under his reign.
King Scyld had a son, Beow; also King Hrothgar’s grandfather. Beow found fame among the nations his father ruled. He gave many gifts to these nations, ensuring their devotion to his own kingship when the time came to take over the crown from his father. The unknown author of Beowulf knew that a generous king could win the popularity of the masses. He stated, “By such deeds of honor shall a man prosper among all the peoples (lines 24-25).”
King Scyld eventually passed away, leaving the throne to Beow. He also left specific burial instructions for his successor. Following Scyld’s requests, King Beow ordered his father’s body to be placed on a ship adorned with much treasure and accoutrements of war. After the completion of this task, the ship was set adrift on the open sea.
King Beow was beloved by his people and ruled over them for many years. During his reign, he had a son, Healfdene the High. Healfdene, in turn, ruled the Scyldings all of his life. He had four children: Heorogar, Hrothgar, Halga the Good, and a fourth child (name unknown) who is said to have been married to King Onela of Sweden.
Hrothgar grew up being a noble warrior and, eventually, a kind and generous king. He built a great political and social hall where he and his men could discuss politics and have great celebrations. He called the hall Heorot. At Heorot, men attended meetings and, during parties, guests enjoyed hearing scops (impromptu singers) sing about various issues, including the creation of man. Life was good then. The king’s loyal followers lived happy lives.
Then an evil demon, Grendel, an offspring of Cain is introduced. Wallowing in his own misery, Grendel wishes to interrupt the joy at Heorot hall. He begins to scheme and “work his wickedness (line 101).”
Grendel soon put his plan into action. One night, after beer-drinking and feasting, everyone in the hall went to sleep. Grendel proceeded to attack the hall, killing thirty thanes (the king’s retainers) in their sleep.
The following morning, there is great sorrow among the king and his men. They are also surprised by the extent to which this stranger caused such damage. However, at this point, Grendel is not finished with the destruction of everyone and everything at Heorot. The following night, he came back to the hall to commit more havoc and murder.
But that was not all. King Hrothgar and his men fought Grendel for several more years. They were miserable. All of their time was taken up figuring out what to do about this menace in their lives. The king’s council often sat for hours considering the best way to defend themselves. Times were difficult. Grendel did not want peace, nor did he compensate for his many killings (customary in this society). His ceaseless violence kept Hrothgar’s kingdom on their toes.
Meanwhile in Geat, Beowulf, son and thane of King Ecgtheow, heard of the horrible attacks by Grendel at Heorot. Beowulf decided to offer his assistance to the Danish king. He then chose fourteen of his bravest warriors to accompany him on his expedition.
When the time came, the warriors packed the ship with many weapons and supplies, and then set sail. Beowulf and his well-equipped soldiers eventually arrived off the Danish coast where a coastguard troop approached them.
To the Danish guard on horseback, Beowulf’s expedition looked peculiar—somewhat threatening. Considering the multitude of weaponry and troops aboard ship, this uneasy feeling came as no surprise. Protected by chain mail, shields and weapons, the lone guard feared an attack by this force. He immediately demanded to know their business exclaiming, “…haste would be best for you to make known your home and your nation (lines 256-257).”
Beowulf answered the coastguard captain. He told them they came to help the king, to counsel him on how the Danes could defeat Grendel. After the explanation, the Dane judged the expedition as friendly, and then proceeded to escort the Geats to see King Hrothgar.
Beowulf and his men marched a cobbled road to the king’s hall where they are approached by King Hrothgar’s herald, Wulfgar the Wendel. In turn, Wulfgar—alone—goes to see the king about Beowulf’s request to see him. Desperate for help against this menace, Grendel, Wulfgar practically begs the king to see Beowulf.
King Hrothgar knew of Beowulf and of his Geat lineage very well. Impressed with Beowulf’s reputation for braveness and strength, the king told the herald that Beowulf and his men are indeed welcomed among his people, and to invite the warrior in to speak with him.
Looking impressive in his shiny armor, Beowulf stood before King Hrothgar—not as just a lone warrior with a troop of fourteen—but as a representative of the Geats as a nation. “Those in my nation as the very best among the wise counselors, gave me advice to look for ways to help you, Lord Hrothgar,” Beowulf said (lines 415-417).
Beowulf continued to tell the king his plan to “cleanse Heorot” of Grendel (line 432). Since Grendel did not use conventional weapons—only his hands—Beowulf also informs the king that he will be fighting Grendel in hand-to-hand combat. In this manner, Beowulf thought his father might take even more pride in his son’s expedition.
In this chapter, it is learned that Beowulf came to help King Hrothgar to repay a debt incurred by his father, Ecgtheow. King Hrothgar told Beowulf all about the time when he paid to settle a feud between his father and another party in Geat. Ecgtheow fled Geat to Denmark; he could not return unless damages were compensated.
Hrothgar also spoke of his past extensive power as a young king. But now he felt humiliated by Grendel’s unstoppable power, and by the Danes’ inability to halt the ongoing threat.
After conversing, Hrothgar invited Beowulf and his men to a feast, and adjourned to the beer hall. They consumed food and drink and listened to a scop sing. Like many party-goers in the hall before them, the Geats were happy and had a great time.
Threatened by Beowulf’s glorious reputation, Unferth, a thane of King Hrothgar’s, ridiculed Beowulf for a lost swimming contest. This ensued a debate about whether or not Beowulf held the ability and willingness to beat Grendel. Assuming Beowulf to be too weak, Unferth said, “…I expect still worse of an outcome (line 525).”
Beowulf defended himself. Despite losing the contest, he believed himself to be the stronger of the two competitors. He told of a “sea-monster” that pulled him under the water where, eventually, after a long fight he killed it with his sword.
The debate continued. Beowulf explained to Unferth that he, in fact, killed nine creatures during this contest—and it was that fact that slowed him down during the race. “Never have I heard such stories told of your skill in battle, in furious sword-fights,” Beowulf said (lines 581-583).” In Beowulf’s view, Unferth has no reason to be boasting about himself or ridiculing anyone. Beowulf then places blame on Unferth for the toll Grendel has taken on Heorot, the king and his men. Beowulf goes on to tell Unferth that Grendel may have already been subdued if “your spirit were so fierce in battle as you suppose yourself (lines 593-594).”
Beowulf then vows to show Grendel the strength and courage of the Geats. The king now felt more confident than ever in Beowulf’s abilities. Hrothgar wishes Beowulf and his men good luck, and retires for the night. Never before did the king leave the hall in the care of someone with such trust.
Beowulf and his men also retire for the night. All fall asleep except one: Beowulf. Awake, and waiting for Grendel, not one of his men doubted Beowulf’s capability to defeat this monster, and live to return to Geat. He also thought of his history and when he was young. In an unusual display, he recalled the smell of flowers when he was a child, a stark contrast to the setting he was current in.
Grendel attacked the hall that night. He forced himself into the hall searching for prey. Before Beowulf could engage in a fight with the monster, Grendel devoured one sleeping warrior. Next, he came for Beowulf. Beowulf leaned up from his bed and placed a tight grip on Grendel’s fingers. The creature never experienced such pain before. With fingers broken, Grendel tried to flee, but Beowulf pursued. A great fight ensued until Grendel finally succumbed to his fatal wounds.
Beowulf's followers are all ready to fight, but their weapons are no match for Grendel, as even "the sharpest and hardest iron could not scratch at his skin." (801-802) At this point, Grendel's arm is torn off his body by Beowulf and he flees, wounded. Beowulf hangs the arm high in the hall as proof that he has defeated Grendel.
The warriors all returned back to the battlefield and retraced Grendel's footsteps to ensure that he is indeed dead. "They gaped with no sence of sorrow, felt no regret for his suffering, went tracing his bloody footprints... doomed and already weary of his vanishing life"(841-846).They returned back to Herot afterwards retelling Beowulf's tale while comparing it with that of Siegmunds battles. As morning slid past and was gone, everyone returned and began to celebrate Grendel's defeat.
Hrothgar enters the hall staring at Grendel's arm thanking God that he was finally defeated. Hrothgar then offers Beowulf and his men gifts, but Beowulf declines for he fought for honor and not for the treasures. With this, Unferth was left speechless because Beowulf has killed the great beast, Grendel with not his weapons but with his bare hands.